Sep 28/23
4:50 am






Calf Muscle Strain Injury

A Calf muscle strain injury is common in sports. Calf injuries are also known as a 'pulled Calf'. The term 'pulled Calf muscle' comes from the description of how the injury takes place. Usually the Calf muscle is forcibly stretched beyond its limits and the muscle tissue becomes torn. A tear in the Calf muscle is referred to as a Calf strain and depending on its severity it is classified as a first, second or third degree strain.

With a grade one Calf strain there is a sensation of cramp or tightness, and a slight feeling of pain when the muscles are stretched or contracted. A grade two Calf strain produces more immediate and severe pain; the Calf is sore to touch and there will be bruising below the injury site after a few days. With a grade three Calf strain the patient is unable to move without pain, and there may be a bulge of soft tissue through the muscle layer.

Early Calf injury treatment consists of the RICE protocol - rest, ice, compression and elevation (never apply ice directly to the skin). Depending upon the severity of the injury, the leg must be rested from sporting activity for between several weeks and several months.

Common Calf Muscle Strain signs & symptoms:

  • A sudden sharp pain in the Calf muscle.
  • Pain when stretching the Calf muscle.
  • Calf pain when standing on tip toes.


Knee Sprain:

- a knee sprain is when ligaments in the knee are stretched or torn. There are 4 main ligaments in the knee that can be sprained, they are:

ACL – anterior cruciate ligament
PCL – posterior crciate ligament
MCL – medial collateral ligament
LCL – lateral collateral ligament

Grade 1 – Mild stretch/micro tearing of the ligaments. There is mild swelling and tenderness over the ligament if it is the MCL/LCL (unable to touch ACL/PCL)

Grade 2 – Moderate stretch/incomplete tearing of the ligaments. There is moderate swelling and tenderness over the ligament and usually some bruising occurs. Laxity is felt in the ligament, however there is an end feel when testing. The knee feels unstable to the patient.

Grade 3 – Complete tear of the ligaments in the knee. There is profuse swelling in the knee immediately. Severe laxity is felt when testing the ligament and the joint is very unstable.

Method Of Injury
– Mainly occur from a traumatic incident, often with the leg planted on the ground.

MCL – Direct blow to the outside of the knee
- Pain felt on the inside of the knee
- Able to “touch” the pain

LCL – Direct blow to the inside of the knee
- Pain felt on the outside of the knee
- Able to “touch” the pain

ACL – Direct blow to the front of the thigh with the leg planted
- Pivot of the body over the planted knee
- Hyperextension of knee
- Unable to touch the pain
- Usually a “pop” is felt or heard

PCL – Direct blow to the back of the thigh with the leg planted
- Direct blow to the tibia with the leg planted
- Hyperextension of knee
- Hyperflexion of the knee

Treatment – All knee sprains should be initially treated by the PIER principle (Pressure, Ice, Elevation, Rest)


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