LAB 1 CLASSROOM
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS COACHING SYSTEM
Performance analysis systems allow analysis coaches to match up opponents live in real time situations, with statistical information and specific video shared between devices for review by coaches in real-time, and players at half-time. Data can be streamed within the stadium. Which is then reviewed by a on field coach every five minutes and prior to half-time team adjustment phase.
The analysis coach can relay in game performance of opponents and stats during each quarter and at half-time. Such processes provide a coach with objective information to inform in-game decision-making.
What is Performance Coaching Analysis?
The system of using data to define performance analysis as an investigation tool of actual sports performance, with the aim being to develop and understand tactical and in game performance of athletes that can inform decision-making, enhance performance and inform the coaching process of performance, analysis has a number of applications, predominantly concerned with tactical and technical evaluation, movement analysis, databased and modelling of coach and player education. The volume of information that can be generated via performance analysis has many implications for enhancing the coaching process of in game decisions and practice enhancement.
The need for Performance Coaching Analysis
The coaching process is an on-going cycle of performance and practice, within which a coach is required to evaluate, intervene, and feedback information to performers with the ultimate aim of enhancing future performance. Within this coaching process, feedback is of critical importance if player and team performance is to improve.
Traditionally the feedback process has been based upon a coach’s subjective observation of performance, which can be influenced by bias, emotion and previous experiences.
A subjective observation process is known to be unreliable and inaccurate, since even experienced football coaches have been shown to be able to recall just 59.2% of the critical events occurring during 45 minutes of football performance.
This lack of accurate recall ability can lead to ‘highlighting’, where a coach’s perception of performance becomes distorted by those events that they can remember.
Ultimately this results in a lack of accuracy within both coaching feedback and decision-making, which can be improved with the use of objective, unbiased and comprehensive information performance analysis data can provide.
Pre-Game Coaching Analysis
Data and video collated on opponents highlight areas of strength and weakness in all aspects of the game to provide a comprehensive picture of what can be expected in upcoming games.
This not only prepares the players but allows the coach to formulate data based strategy to counteract the opposition and exploit their weaknesses, which can be worked on in training prior to the game.
Some coaches will also analyze training session to assess the effectiveness of aspects of performance being tested in training (such as techniques, different formations etc.) and evaluate aspects which can influence tactical selections.
Enhancing feedback with Performance Analysis
Accurate and timely feedback is critical within the coaching process in professional sporting environments and has driven the uptake of performance analysis systems.
Two-dimensional video-analysis systems enable both player and coach to review performance numerous times after the event, reducing observer bias and increasing the quality and accuracy of information, as well as providing numerous options for feedback provision.
Performance analysis feedback may be quantitative through the application of statistical analysis of team and player performance, or qualitative through the use of video and relate to technical (passing game, blocking etc.), tactical, observation, (‘game sense’, decision-making, concentration, emotional state) and physical (movement, work-rate) aspects of performance.
The effect of feedback may not always be positive and player skill level must be considered. To facilitate improvements in performance, skilled players require more detailed feedback than those less skilled, however there is a balancing act, since if feedback is too detailed performance can be negatively affected.
Skill level and experience also influences a player’s ability to interpret two-dimensional video feedback as a three-dimensional image, with more experienced players better able to do so.
A lot of time is devoted to analysis after a game has been played in order to review team and individual performance in detail, evaluate performance and plan future training.
Post-game analysis feedback sessions should play an integral role in the coaching process.
Although care must be taken to ensure the process is integrated rather than detracting from the time spent training.
Wider integrated Sports Science support
The coaching culture within professional football has traditionally been cautious towards sports sciences, the contemporary environment has become more welcoming with the implementation of a more systematic, multi-disciplinary approach as the value added by sports science support becomes increasingly clear.
Football clubs at the elite level will typically employ the service of physiologists, psychologists, nutritionists and performance analysts, although the structure of sports science support is not uniform.
The sports sciences play an important role in improving sports performance, informing critical features of the coaching process such as devising training sessions and monitoring performance.
while performance, analysis typically focuses on the tactical and technical element of team sport performance, it also has implications for wider sports science support, contributing vital information to other sports science disciplines (such as conditioning).
Performance analysis can contribute to the medical department via movement analysis to detect injury mechanisms and identify injury risk factors in players.
The overall risk of injury to professional football players has been reported to be approximately 1,000 times greater than for high-risk industrial occupations, which is reflected in the increasing relevance given to two and three-dimensional technique analysis for injury prevention.
Typically functional movement screening occurs during pre-season with posture, gait, muscle length and joint flexibility, neuromuscular assessment and functional-specific testing being carried out, supplemented by video and annotated images for feedback if technique analysis software is applied.
The screening of older players can allow them to prolong their careers, the screening of younger players can identify issues caused by developmental changes that can predispose them to injury.
The application of analysis software within injury prevention screening can assist medical staff in identifying risk factors and developing performance plans in collaboration with a strength and conditioning coach to correct any issues. Such performance plans based upon injury screening feedback have been implemented with positive results.
Strength and Conditioning
Player tracking systems can collect physical data, including distance covered, number of sprints and high-intensity distance covered, indicating the demands of game play which strength and conditioning can use to devise individualized training schedules preparing players for these demands.
The detail provided by these systems allows the identification of position specific demands and the factors that can influence variability in work-rate profiles between players of the same position, such as fatigue, quality of opposition, environmental conditions and game setting.
Video feedback can be used to evaluate psychological aspects of performance such as attitude, commitment or errors of attentional focus, which can be shown to a team or individuals to assist a sport psychologist in advising players on psychological skills.
Motivational movies demonstrating positive performance with motivational music for a team or individual players can also be created.
Reviewing video of successful performances has been recognized as a highly motivating factor, increasing player and team confidence (Jenkins et al., 2007). Individual player videos have been demonstrated to be particularly effective if they can include training performance and match footage to recognize the hard work and dedication a player has shown to produce good performances.
Talent Identification and Recruitment
Talent identification is a multidimensional process, in which performance analysis can play a considerable role.
Many coaches and scouts consider that they can ‘see a good player’ leading to decisions being made on signing players based upon a subjective evaluation of the player.
There are even instances where players have been signed when a coach has not personally observed the player performing.
Performance analysis can provide objective data and video footage to assist and guide player recruitment, utilizing game data relating to technical, tactical and physical performance, all provide a comprehensive scouting or recruitment package.
An example of which demonstrates that performance data should be used as a guide rather than an absolute measure when recruiting players.
Within published coaching literature much attention has been paid to the effectiveness of training sessions for learning and performance, with the amount of time spent practicing being particularly important for the development of expertise by experiencing the situations in real time.
As a result maximizing practice time within many factors that can disrupt training sessions is an important skill distinguishing between novice and expert coaches. Performance analysis systems can be applied to training sessions to evaluate their quality as part of a coach’s professional development.
Although the coaching culture within professional football has traditionally been cautious towards the application of sports science, the acknowledgement that sports science can enhance the coaching process has led to a more multi-disciplinary approach, with performance analysis playing a key role due to its implications for other disciplines.
However, there are barriers that make the integration of sports science support problematic. Some such as time and cost are borne out of circumstance, others may be caused by the coach themselves.
Although it is clear that the specialist expertise of sports science support staff can extend beyond that of the coach in their particular areas, for sports science to maintain its currency in the professional football environment the relationship between the coach and sports science practitioners is critical.
Sports scientists require a coach-centered approach to gain an insight into how the coach operates, so that data can be provided in a way that the coach can understand enabling their expertise, also possessing multi-disciplinary knowledge in order to understand the impact of their discipline on others and the implications for the coaching process.
A key skill of a successful coach is the ability to co-ordinate sports science support so that it is integrated into the coaching process to facilitate performance enhancement.